A number of MNCs set up joint ventures for manufacture of telecom equipment in the last 3years. The capacity builds up outstripped demand from the service providers. Due to resourcecrunch, DOT the dominant single buyer delayed placing orders. This resulted in an adverseimpact on the bottom-line. A shake out local players including some PSUs who aretechnologically not competitive is bound to happen. Origin of Indian Telecommunications:Started in when the first operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta seat of British power.
Telephone services were introduced in India in In telephoneservices were merged with the postal system. After independence in , all the foreign telecommunication companies werenationalized to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph PTT , a monopoly run by thegovernments Ministry of Communications. Telecom sector was considered as a strategic service and the government considered it best tobring under states control.
The first wind of reforms in telecommunications sector began to flowin s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications equipment manufacturing. It was an exclusiveprovider of domestic and long distance service that would be its own regulator separate from thepostal system. In s,telecommunications sector benefited from the general opening up of the economy.
Also,examples of telecom revolution in many other countries, which resulted in better quality of 8 9. National Telecom Policy NTP was the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecommunicationssector. TRAI was formedto act as a regulator to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector. New National Telecom Policywas adopted in and cellular services were also launched in the same year. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domesticlong distance and international long distance services.
Private sector services arepresently available in selective urban areas, and collectively account for less than 5 per cent ofsubscriptions. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephonyservices are the major growth drivers for cellular industry. Cellular operators get substantialrevenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, whichalong with rental was the main source of revenue.
The reduction in tariffs for airtime, nationallong distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand. The TRAI, which draws regulatory power fromthe TRAI Act of Amended , isresponsible for:Notwithstanding anything contained in the Indian Telegraph Act,,the functions of theAuthority shall be to- a Make recommendations, on a request from the licensor, on the following matters, namely: i need and timing for introduction of new service provider; ii terms and conditions of license to a service provider; iii revocation of license for non-compliance of terms and conditions of license: iv measures to facilitate competition and promote efficiency in the operation oftelecommunication services so as to facilitate growth in such services.
In addition to the standardvoice function of a telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services suchas SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS forsending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellularnetwork of base stations cell sites , which is in turn interconnected to the public switched 11 Cellular telephone is also definedas a type of short-wave analog or digital telecommunication in which a subscriber has a wirelessconnection from a mobile telephone to a relatively nearby transmitter.
The transmitters span ofcoverage is called a cell. Generally, cellular telephone service is available in urban areas andalong major highways. As the cellular telephone user moves from one cell or area of coverage toanother, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell transmitter. A cellular telephone isnot to be confused with a cordless telephone which is simply a phone with a very short wirelessconnection to a local phone outlet. A newer service similar to cellular is personalcommunications services PCS.
The Global Cellular Mobile Industry:The global mobile phone industry is based on many different manufacturers and operators. Theindustry is based on advanced technology and many of the manufacturers are operating indifferent industries, where they use their technological skills, distribution network, marketknowledge and brand name. Four large manufacturers of mobile phones are today dominatingthe global mobile phone industry; Nokia, Sony Ericson, Samsung and Motorola.
In addition tothese companies there are many manufacturers that operate globally and locally. India has nearly million telephone lines, 12 Indian telecom industry has the highest growth rate in the world. A record 5. India, which is seeing over 8 million wireless subscribers being added every month 8. No wonder the whole worldhas set its eyes on India, a glimpse of which can seenfrom the recent acquisition of Hutch by Vodafone and consolidation phase which has just begun. The government has reiterated the target of million telecom subscribers and 20 millionbroadband connections by Undoubtedly, the Indian telecom industry is at an inflexionpoint and everyone wants to have a slice of this lucrative market, given the under-penetratedmarket and untapped potential.
However, the call operators now… India has come a long way TheAugust of saw the launch of the first rate structure; with an outgoing call rate of Rs. The New 13 The tariffs have come down substantially with Indian Mobileratesbeing the lowest in the world. The number of wireless subscribers rose from 16 million in to million at the end of May With this, India has become one of the fastest growingmobile markets in the world.
The GSM Association is an international organization founded in , dedicated todeveloping, providing and overseeing the worldwide wireless standard of GSM. It became an international standard in People of both the camps claim that their architecture issuperior to the other. Nokia 2. Motorola 3. Samsung 4. Sony Ericsson 6. FLY 7.
Micromax 8. MovilNokiaIn , an engineer named Fredrik Idestam established a wood-pulp mill and startedmanufacturing paper in southern Finland near the banks of a river. The Nokia factory employed a fairly large workforce and a smallcommunity grew around it. The Finnish Cable Works had grown quickly due to theincreasing need for power transmission and telegraph and telephone networks in the World WarII. Gradually the ownership of the Rubber Works and the Cable Works companies consolidated. In, all the 3 companies merged-up to form the Nokia Group.
The Electronics Department 15 In the beginning of , the telephone exchanges consisted ofelectro-mechanical analog switches. Soon Nokia successfully developed the digital switch Nokia DX thereby replacing the prior electro mechanical analog switch. The NMT was later on introduced in other countries. Beginning of the brought about an economic recession inFinland. Rumour has it that Nokia was offered to the Swedish telecom company Ericsson duringthis time which was refused Due to this Nokia increased its sale of GSM phones that wasenormous. This was the main reason for Nokia to not only be one of the largest but also the mostimportant companies in Finland.
Slowly and steadily, Nokia became a large televisionmanufacturer and also the largest information technology company in the Nordic countries. During the economic recession the Nokia was committed to telecommunications.
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The series of the production was so successful that inspite of its goal to sell , units, itmarvellously sold 20 million. Presently, Nokia is the number 1 production in digitaltechnologies, it invests 8. Also has its annual NokiaGame. Enter to Global System CommunicationNokia Corporation Nokia , a Finland based company incorporated in , is the leadingmanufacturer of mobile devices and mobile networks in the world. Over the years, Nokia hasevolved from a pulp, rubber and cables manufacturing company to a major manufacturer ofwireless devices and networks.
Nokia offers a wide range of mobile devices with experiences in 16 It also providesequipment, solutions and services for network operators, service providers and corporations. Thecompany offers its products in countries across the world. It is headquartered in Espoo,Finland and employs about 68, people. The company recorded revenues of E41, million during the fiscal year ended December, and an increase of The operating profit of the company was E5, million during fiscal year , an increase of The net profit was E4, million in fiscal year , an increase of The company operates in three divisions: Multimedia, Enterprise Solutions, andNetworks.
The Multimedia division focuses on bringing connected mobile multimedia toconsumers in the form of advanced mobile devices, including 3G WCDMA mobile devices andsolutions. The Enterprise Solutions division enables businesses and institutions to extend theiruse of mobility from mobile devices for voice and basic data to secure mobile access, content,and applications. Its solutions include business-optimized mobile devices for end users, aportfolio of Internet portfolio network perimeter security gateways, and mobile connectivityofferings.
The Networks division provides network infrastructure, communications, andnetworks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers. NokiaCorporation is based in Espoo, Finland. The trend of beating industry norms started with the fastest ever nationwide launchby MOTOROLA in a period of 4 and 5 months with the commencement of operations in May The Greater Noida manufacturing unit line has been designed with the latest technologies at parwith international standards at Korea and is one of the most Eco-friendly units amongst allMOTOROLA manufacturing plants in the world.
The company had till the month of October achieved a cumulative turnover of Rs Crores in India since its inception in , making it the fastest ever Rs Crores clocked byany company in the Indian consumer electronics and home appliances industry. These three multinationals form the core of Samsung Group and reflectits name - the meaning of the Korean word Samsung is "tristar" or "three stars". The Samsung brand is the best known South Korean brand in the world and in , Samsungovertook Japanese rival Sony as the worlds leading consumer electronics brand and became partof the top twenty global brands overall.
It is also the leader in many domestic industries, such asthe financial, chemical, retail and entertainment industries.
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Samsungs strong influence in SouthKorea is visible throughout the nation, and is sometimes called the Republic of Samsung. Thes saw Samsung rise as an international corporation. Not only did it acquire a number ofbusinesses abroad, but also began leading the way in certain electronic components.
Samsungsconstruction branch was awarded a contract to build one of thetwo Petronas Towers in Malaysia,Taipei in Taiwan and the Burj Dubai in United Arab Emirates founded by Callum Cuirtis ,which is the tallest structure ever constructed. In , the Samsung Group reacquired theSungkyunkwan University foundation. Samsung is the worlds largest manufacturer of Televisions and various other consumerelectronics. Samsung is the worlds second largest mobile phone maker. Compared to other major Koreancompanies, Samsung survived the Asian financial crisis of relatively unharmed.
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Log in Forgot Password. News News Support General. How to use it Use it for Monitor remotely How to use it Install. Install the application on the phone that you want to monitor. You can install the application for free and you will have a free trial. GPS will always be tracked for free. The power limit for CB radios is four watts.
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Hays had used an illegal device, called a linear amplifier, that stepped up his transmitter power to watts. When the FCC showed up at his door and explained the rules, Mr. Hays voluntarily disconnected and destroyed the device. But a few months later he was using another one, down to 75 watts, but still well above the legal limit. The FCC charged Mr. Hays with operating without a license. Follow us closely here. The FCC takes the view that the license-by-rule regime applies only to CB radios that comply with the technical rules.
That put Mr. Hays in violation for having no license. Does this make sense? Not to us. If Mr. Hays had applied for a license to operate at watts in the CB band — or even 75 watts — he would have been turned down. And even if it did, it would not knowingly license a transmitter over four watts. So Mr. Hays was fined for not doing something the FCC would not have let him do.
As in an earlier case , this strikes us as fundamentally unfair. Not that Mr. Hays should necessarily walk away scot-free. The FCC could properly have cited him for exceeding the power limits, or for use of unauthorized equipment, and maybe for both. But we think it is wrong instead to run up the fine by alleging violation of a rule as to which compliance is impossible. Swearing, Illegal High power and even threats of harm are common.
Did you know that operation above watts can cause bodily harm to anyone in the area of the antenna? Amateur radio Operations have a rule we must provide a assessment to show we comply with these rules. Further- once modified, many radios produce harmonic frequency transmissions which could be messing up Police and vital services. Consider this next time you need a police office, But he cannot hear dispatch because the Jerk thinks its cool to be transmitting over power.
Do you also protect your family and precious kids from WI-FI and cellphone towers and phone signals proved to cause brain tumors or do you just have a thing for CB Radios? Well said, Dirk. Well said. I know some hammers that are complete idiots. How did they get the license? Yes, they paid another hammer to help them get into the door. The author of this article and several commenters are hung up on the technical details and bureaucratic issues of the story.
A simple parallel can show that the individual in question was acting illegally regardless of his ability or inability to obtain a license. Does that make it, therefore, legal to go for a drive at mph running stop signs and not yielding to pedestrians? No, it does not. You are still bound by other rules and restrictions of operating a motor vehicle legally. To continue the comparrison, if a police officer pulled you over for going mph, and indicated that the speed limit was 60mph, would you then pull away from the traffic stop and beging going 80mph?
Your comparison is poor, one entails the risk of serious bodily harm and the licence to drive a car is easily obtainable.
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While the other there is no risk of direct harm and a broadcast licence is systematically made hard to acquire. A broadcast license is hard to acquire, yes. But CB is not a broadcast band, and performing 2-way communications does not require a broadcast license. You can do 1, watts on 6m. I think the tone of this blog is more outraged than its subject really deserves. Grow a set of balls, cb radio oporaters can whoop up on hams ever time.
We gots antinnas bigger haaarp that the govarnmint has up in allaska. Next time you better run when the bird starts talkin caus ol double belly has just got down, 73s in the mag. I have not seen the language of the FCC decision — but I think what they are hitting Hays with is him not having a Ham or even a commercial license — as linear amplifiers are legal to use on 10 meters if licensed but not on the CB reserved frequencies. I think the FCC made a good call — and — they even let him skate the first time.
RF power amp running it illegally on CB channels , oops. Oh my god! Hams get ah grip an chill out on cber bashing,,i respect the fcc rules An want to get my ticket soon but im a cber now, also in my area any cussing on The channel an rudeness will get you a serious threat an if the loud filthy mouth wants to meet an have a SERIOUS talk on the road somewhere ill be there quick cause usually my kids is hearing my cb conversations. And to be honest with my preamp on i hear a good distance an never really hear any cussing except on ch 19 truckers..
A half watt is far too much for this guy. You must be one of THOSE people who believe you should be able to do what you want, when you want, and screw others being impinged upon by your actions. I feel sorry for people like you. US Amateur Transmitter Power Limits At all times, transmitter power must be the minimum necessary to carry out the desired communications. Unless otherwise noted, the maximum power output is watts PEP. Geographical power restrictions apply to the meter, 70 centimeter, 33 centimeter and 23 centimeter bands.
The main reason is because Enforcement costs money, and for the longest time the majority of enforcement comes from the community. If they are dumb enough to break the rules, not knowing what the rule is, is according to the law, not a defense. Years ago people would get their kicks by going over pay phones while sitting nearby in a parking lot to watch the reaction. My kicks were listening to people several states away talking to each other on cordless phones back when they used the mhz range not realizing it was going out in clear on a long range frequency. It was frequently involving something most would consider immoral or illegal, spouses cheating on each other or something like that.
They only go after the small spenders, leaving the big money spenders alone. Its like this in everything the govt does. What I am saying may sound odd to some, but it will make complete sense to those that are awake to the reality of things. Wake up people. Follow me on Facebook…. Just call me Hawk, lol…. And pretty accurate with the info. Hell, the noise floor on ch 19 got so bad, the regulars near me decided to switch off it to another channel.
All those distant signals causing nothing but noise. The others just put enough fire in the wire to keep solid reception over top of all the interference from modern electronics. I actually appreciate it, as it makes hearing what they have to say much easier. With great power comes great responsibility. There is a range that is dangerous to people at relatively low levels, and there are ranges above and below that where the radiation is only harmful at high levels.
Wi-Fi and cell phones operate and much higher frequencies than a CB radio does — well out of the harmful range at the power levels at which such devices operate. So there are lots of RF amplifiers out there. There are ones that are made for the Ham bands, which have a specific plug for exciting the amp, and then there are amplifiers which are internally excited with an RF current sensing circuit.
I mean come on. Or you can put them in the helium balloons and send them away in space ha ha. Oh yeah and I have a CB radio myself. And I transmit stuff too. And usually I like to talk eight mail about the FCC. Ha ha ha. FCC fails. I usually send out hate mail on their wings with my CV and walkie-talkie too. Because I got a CD that has a big in China, and it has 46 channels on it. And the FCC fails all the time. Licenses stink. When they always ask for a license you know we say?
We hate you. Nobody wants to see their stupid rules. Thanks, Bryce Christopher Belcher. This guy is so so bad. But anyways, maybe instead of doing operation she should work on with his homework studying the FCC rules. Just kidding. At least he only walked out with the fine. I never found out about a linear amplifier but boy the And less he will apologize to that cc in the Lord God about what he did. Doing good things makes good things happen to good people. So do never ever do anything bad that will cause problems. Even though I do little forward the message from frequency of this problem right here so bad.
Maybe we would be able to pray they would be a change order would be so much licensee. Hopefully in the year of or , we would be able to not have so much junk, but for those of you that are outside of the and I did states, you guys are lucky. If I have anything else to share I will share it with you. Because it could cause a lot of problems especially with the FCC.
Also just so good to us too. About how this guy did that. Well what do you do? My answer is just keep on doing it. How about one day they will have a conference about things and try to straighten them out. Maybe the guy should not of cost another 70 W range. Because the truth is, well he is lucky. At least if that ever changes, hopefully they would put it on the radio or TV and let everybody know.
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That says about the guy at running a motor vehicle which made pre-much sense. You know, so they might not or they might do it. Nobody will know and Leslie explain it. Maybe they both made posted the info on the website explaining what goes on. But some of you with truckers with bad language, you need to stop. This is why you folks get busted because you always got to do something bad on the airwaves.
If everybody sees this on the website good for them. Bad part is he was warned twice not to do it. Bing, ball, kaboom. So make sure you guys read this, because these comments from me right shelf might surprise all of you, and if it is of you bloggers see this try to make a story out of what I said. Plus doing bad stuff like that or make it worse especially for yourself. Because if you start learned all that stuff still start learning it and then it will be not such a good idea for that middle.
If you guys ever see this, just let me know on this website, so that way I will be able to post your comments and questions. The first question is why does the FCC have to be bad like that? I know everybody asks that, well the answer is because they do too much business regulation over the Internet and all A lot of people can share this with other people if they want to. Because this is where the comics guys when you guys look over there and say well versus in person. Also if you guys have a CB or ham radio you can transmit on any channel.
Tell me what you guys think or, you could hit up on this website. Well this is this is really good. That was my nickname though just kidding ha ha Ha Also if you guys have a CB or ham radio you can transmit on any channel. But just know that. Just not good enough to do that. Rare example, thousands still run way more than that, nothing happens ever. Cute shill post but unless you interfere nothing ever happens.
FM pirates, gmrs, murs, messing with business band drive thrus. I have been for more than 30 years. I follow the rules and regulations and I am proud of it. I am neither immature or mentally unstable. Those who break the rules make it difficult for everyone. Your remarks do tell a lot about YOUR maturity and stability. Attacking a class of people such as Ham Radio Operators with lies and false innuendos is not rational.
As someone with a 20 plus year license and 30 years in various forms of the communications realm including shortwave, CB, Ham Radio, commercial radio and various licenses including radiotelephone repair I have to laugh at the current ham community. The term immature mentally unstable ham operators is just about right on the money. Including the Internet, VOIP, Audio and Video conferencing, smartphones, Skype, webcams and countless other devices far exceeding the capabilities of ham radio. The only thing that makes ham radio worthwhile these days would be in case of a true national emergency or total economic failure and collapse of societal functioning.
Even then Ham RADIO will be practically useless except for the powers that be to transmit information between point to point while harnessing resources and transferring those resources where they are needed. Even more laughable is that these guys think they are something else in an era when basically the general public has already passed up ham radio and the technologies has passed them by a couple of decades ago. With the advent of the Internet, Satellite TV, Satellite Radio, podcasting, streaming audio and video, Ham radio these days is a mere shell of what it once was and could have been.
Instead, the province of these low IQ hams is mostly passing a couple of government administered tests via FCC approved license coordinators and test administrators. The term fat, immature and largely uneducated ham radio operators is now more true than ever. All you have to do is go to the average hamfest or club get together. Half of the members or participants can barely dress themselves much less be bothered with grooming, personal hygiene or brushing their teeth and combing their hair. You look at their ham radio technical and installation skills and it looks like something someone would find in a third world nation rather than one of the most developed countries in the entire world.
It reminds me a lot of a local small time radio operation owned by a woman who inherited the station from her father. No real technical knowledge, cables and equipment strewn about the double wide that serves as the studio. Junk everywhere and tapes and CDs all over the place with no real organization. At one time the average HAM was someone to be proud to know and be associated with because of their knowledge of world affairs, shortwave radio, communications technology, technical knowledge and such.
Now its just plain a bunch of lazy fat obese uneducated riff raff that makes up much of the radio bands. All you have to do is find the white trash element of 75 meters, 40 meters and 20 meters especially that basically are the demise of HF communications. Many of them actually have advanced class and extra class licenses with CW certification but they have the common sense and decency of the village moron element. Unfortunately that is the HAM RADIO element of today to be much like the generally dumb public that is clueless, uninformed, uneducated and incapable of achieving higher standards.
Hardly a way to actually learn technical skills and capabilities. The one thing about this article, the operator knew what he was doing. What most of us operators know is that when Uncle Frankie Charles come knocking, we know we are in the wrong. Most times, the FCC will not just show up.